Bożkowa L.W., Wartanow M.W., Martynowicz N.A.: Equations of relative motion of the shaft in the case of the contact of the shaft face and the bush generatrix using robotic manipulator and vibration device
This paper describes obtained differential equations of the shaft gravity center relative motion when contact of the shaft face and the bush generatrix occurs with the use of a robotic manipulator and vibration device.
Keywords: assembly automation, vibration device, equations motion
Reifur B.: Method of logical writing and software tool usage for assembly line balancing
In many manufacturing companies, despite the development of software for balancing production lines, the problem of balancing an assembly line is carried out with a paper and pencil, as well as on various types of spreadsheets. The use of computer programs to perform this type of tasks is not relatively common, because of their price and constraints. In this paper the results of the analysis of assembly line balancing of gas stove component with two methods are presented. The first one uses software tools for balancing an assembly line, and the second contains the logical method of writing mathematical relationship between operations – the method of the priority rules.
Keywords: assembly, efficiency, component, priority graph
Kluz R.: The validation of equipment of the robotized assembly stand
The article describes the range of the R&R method (repeatability and reproducibility) usage for the precise evaluation of a robotized assembly stand. The results of the measurement of the positioning repeatability error of the industrial robot Mitsubishi RV-M2 are presented, as well as investigation results concerning influence of the elastic deformation of the robot rocker on the structure of the total error. These errors do not influence distribution of random variable, and cause change in average values only. This article also presents that such errors can be randomized by a simplification of the assembly stand evaluation process.
Keywords: assembly, assembly stand, repeatability position of the robot
Oborskyi I.: Energy-saving technology and determination of energy losses with thermal to assembling connections with the interference
The article presents theoretical results on a energy loss study during assembling of connections with the interference based on the example of large-dimension connections with the interference. The energy-saving technology of assembling of the rail transport divided wheels with the use of heating and cooling is proposed.
Keywords: technology of assembling by the heating-cooling, connection with the interference
Sąsiadek M., Grzesik K.: Analysis of a gear motor assembly process by value stream mapping
The following paper presents the analysis of a gear motor assembly process based on the value of stream mapping. It describes the steps of creating the so-called present state map, which represents the actual course and parameters of the investigated process. Basing on the analysis of this map the future state map is developed, and it suggests changes in its particular areas. Also, benefits of these changes are estimated; thus, benefits contribute to improvement of the investigated process implementation.
Keywords: value stream mapping, process organization, assembly process
Zbrowski A., Samborski T.: The method and the device for adhesive strength tests for glued joints in multilayered documents
The article presents the method and stand for testing adhesive strength of glued joints in multilayered documents. The manufacture technology of the aforementioned types of documents includes electronically tagged documents, and depends on the used material of the individual layers, and the type of glue used to join them. Each technology differs in terms of the glue used, and leads to the production of a multilayered product, which area of application is determined, inter alia, by the adhesive strength of every layer. In electronically tagged products that are used, i.e. in security systems, or data protection systems this feature plays an essential role because of forgery attempts. The adhesive strength of the glued joints in multilayered documents is tested by tearing individual layers off the base in order to determine the minimum tear-off force value. The article presents structural solutions that are of key importance from the point of view of a correct execution of the test procedures, the user, and the main executive elements of ergonomics. The control system that base on the programmable PLC controller, enables to conduct tests for a wide range of changeability of basic parameters deciding on the final assessment of the product. A multifunctional control panel enables the parameters to be set, the calibration tests to be performed, and the executive systems to be adjusted. Depending on the purpose of the tests, the device can be operated in an autonomous mode or via the PC. While working with a computer, the test parameters and the course of the tear-off force are recorded and archived in a specialized software, and can be later used at the time of R&D tasks concerning prototyping of new solutions in the area of multilayered document development.
Keywords: document, endurance, testing, delamination, adhesion
Ciecińska B.: Evaluation of the AISI 4130 steel gluing capacity in aircraft constructions
The paper presents results of an experimental research. The analysis presents results of AISI 4130 steel (used in aircraft constructions) gluing. The adhesive joints are made from different glues due to their properties and surface pretreatment process. The results are obtained in the context of strength, glue, hardener mixture preparation easiness, and apply time. Positive and negative aspects and possibilities of glue application (in construction, assembling, and reparation) are discussed.
Keywords: constructive AISI 4130 steel, gluing, assembling, shear strength of joints
Zielecki W., Perłowski R.: Influence of structural and technological factors on strength of the adhesive cylindrical joints made of alloy AlSi7Mg0,3 and composite epoxy-glass
The paper presents an analysis of the impact of structural and technological factors on strength of the adhesive cylindrical joints made of alloy AlSi7Mg0,3 and the epoxy-glass composite. The three adhesive compositions are used: Loctite Hysol 9514, Araldite 2014, Epidian 57 + PAC, highest shear strength 40 – 41 MPa assured composition of Loctite Hysol 9514 with a thickness of 0,15 mm. Only the composition Epidian 57 + PAC chromating surface of the bushing hole caused an increase of shear strength in examined connections about 5 – 40%.
Keywords: glue joints, strength
Nowakowski P.: Application of rfid system for recycling purposes in assembling electronic equipment
Proper disassembling methodology and reaching the assumed recycling level of electric and electronic equipment waste is necessary for dismantling companies. It is also required to use environmentally friendly methods of design and manufacture stages. In this process all components are approved for a specific product, and adequate assembling technology is selected. Electronic equipment consists of valuable materials that can be recovered, such as: ferrous, non-ferrous, and precious metals.
One of the methods of assigning information about the product is an identification system used in a life cycle of the product. It can be used as a key for database with detailed information included in a bill of materials and also in indicating hazardous substances.
The paper presents the method of writing specific data and assigning it for a specific product with the application of radio frequency system – RFID. It can be used successfully in assembling of such electronic equipment. RFID tag can be placed inside the equipment with a specific data or database key to access information about materials that are used in parts and subassemblies.
A project of RFID placement in LCD TV sets assembled in a company in Poland is presented as a case study. Such project can be achieved without any significant change in configuration of assembly line, and assembling time increases in minimal level. The implementation cost is relatively low and the benefits are important from economic and environmental point of view.
Keywords: assembling and disassembling of electronic equipment, RFID system, material content
Oroń G., Galiński K.: Comparison of rotor assembly methods with conventional assembly devices
The article describes a comparison of rotary and conventional methods of the assembly. In the first part of the text examples of feeder elements are described. These feeder elements can be assembled both by the conventional method and rotor method. The last part of this article describes examples of devices that perform rotor assembly and conventional assembly method. As a summary, the two methods are compared.
Keywords: rotor assembly device, vibratory feeder, feeder element
Płonka S., Pępek M., Zyzak P.: Varieties of non-woven flap disc abrasive and their influence on surface roughness
This paper presents the characteristics of varieties with flap disc in the process of their production. Conducted studies determine the impact characteristics of flap disc (patch) of non-woven abrasive grinding and selected parameters: aw infeed and the number of double pass ip defined surface roughness profile ordinates arithmetic mean Ra of structural steel
S275 N. Results based on the survey were the smallest specific surface roughness profile ordinates the arithmetic mean of Ra grinding flap disc non-woven abrasive FA with a grain number 180.
Keywords: grinding tools abrasives, non-woven abrasives, production, roughness surface
Klusek K., Fabiszewski M., Lenczewski J.: Automatic machine for tar paper nail and washer assembly
Alternatives to classic roofing nails as tar paper nails with washer are available on the market. Manual nail and washer assembly is highly inefficient, so automatic unit for this operation was designed and implemented. The paper presents the technological task, and assumptions used in design process, and then discuss the methodology of a design work. This paper describes the research attempts, conducted on prototype units of the designed mechanism that meets design assumptions. The first test involved the possibility of obtaining a stable connection in the shortest time possible, with the use of a smallest pneumatic actuator. As a result of those attempts, a new shape on a nail and the shape of matrix is proposed, and chosen the right pneumatic actuator. The second test concerned the possibility of stable and rapid washers feeding. As a result of the attempts, the correct shape of the track pad, the optimal shape of matrix, and the method of accelerating washer are obtained. The third test involves the possibility of a stable and rapid feed of nails into the head assembly. As a result of this attempt, the right shape of feeding track pad, the arrangement of air blasting nozzle for nails acceleration and optimum shape of nails grip was obtained. The concept of an automatic unit was based on the automatic unit for mounting farmer’s screws was described in the TiAM 2, 2000 issue, pages 29–31. The test results helped to design and implement the automatic unit for a nail and washer assembly that meets established requirements and customer needs. This paper presents the detailed machine cycle, and shows its structure with an emphasis on the head assembler. The mentioned conception of the machine can be successfully modified and used in the next assembling machine design with similar assembly operations.
Keywords: automated machines design, assembly process, joining elements, washer, nail
Kluz R.: Utilization of the selective assembly method to the enlargement of capability process
The article presents the results of qualitative capability investigations of the process production of the gate valve pins. It shows that the use of the selective method of the assembly extends executive tolerances (on condition of meeting constructional requirements) and increases coefficient value that often is a proof that customer requirements are fulfilled. Furthermore, this article shows that dependence enables to determine minimum values of coefficients assuring the reliable course of the assembly process.
Keywords:assembly, selection, process capacity, method
Sąsiadek M.: Design for assembly – evaluation of parts and subassemblies connection
This paper presents an evaluation of the assembly connections in accordance with generally accepted principles of design for assembly. A detailed description of the indicator characterizing the complexity of the two parts connection and its application to the evaluation and selection of the best assembly sequence are presented.
Keywords: design for assembly, evaluation of assembly connections, assembly sequence planning
Babirecki W.: Development directions of pneumatic fittings construction with regard to their assembly automation
This article presents new variants of pneumatic fittings construction, and analyses of the fitting tip responsible for connecting a working element with a socket. Nowadays, the most popular solutions are thread or screw connections. In the paper are presented solutions alternative to the existing ones. Nevertheless, analyses of both existing solutions and proposed ones are also presented. The fittings are analysed with regard to their exploitation costs and the costs of implementing suitable sockets, because both the construction and the fittings complexity level influence the socket processing together with the cost of creating the working element. The article shows also the multiple-criteria evaluation of the presented.
Keywords: connector, working element, pneumatics
Dębski H., Nieoczym A.: Series of modular industrial screwdrivers
The article presents computer programs assisting the structure of industrial screwdrivers. Basic points of the structural modules selection are discussed together with mathematical justification of the calculated parameters order and their influence on the process of driving. Results of the examination of driving parameters are presented with the constructed screwdriver and formulae of polynomial functions that are characteristic for this process.
Keywords: screwdriver, modular structure, moment screwing in properly, driving impulse
The article presents the DMAIC methodology in Six Sigma projects. The methodology is used in a welding process analysis of low-pressure turbine blades. Processes that might have an influence on the welding process and control points are identified in this work; furthermore, assessment of control systems and analysis of data gathered from welding process is presented too. The gathered data is analyzed with the use of statistical method to identify influential factors for this process. All actions that were implemented to improve welding process are described and their results are presented in this article.
Keywords: Six Sigma, DMAIC, control system assessment
Kozioł S., Zbrowski A.: The system for testing the endurance for twisting of electronically tagged documents
The aim of the system is to study the negative impact of repeated spherical twisting of an electronically tagged document onto its physical and functional properties. The system allows for the execution of tests according to the test methods specified by ICAO and the PN-ISO/IEC 10373-1 norm concerning ID cards. The test results in an increased wear of a multilayered document, particularly in the area where the RFID chip is located.
The test is conducted with the use of a calibrating instrument that measures the document twist angle at the load of 0.3 Nm, and a tester for the execution of a given number of twist cycles. The tested document is placed in jaws that perform ±20º alternate torsion movements. The calibrating device is equipped with a load system and an angle measurement system, whereas the tester – has a twist angle adjustment system and a cycle number programmer. The tester enables a simultaneous testing of six samples. The jaw span and the element enabling symmetric document placement can be adjusted, which allows tests of differently sized documents to be performed.
The test plan expects 500 cycles of two-sided twisting to be performed before the efficiency of the RFID inlet is verified. The aforementioned test method can also be used in tests of other products, which can be subject to two-sided twisting during their operation, i.e.: glued joints, multilayered products, laminates or protective coatings.
Keywords: RFID, document durability, spherical twisting, endurance tests, ID cards
Godzimirski J., Pietras A.: The modeling of an adhesive layer for FEM calculation
An increased usage of application of adhesive bonds takes necessary to calculate their strength. In order to do it, the FEM numerical calculations are universally used. The problems of modeling of adhesive layer by solid elements for FEM calculations are presented in this paper. The method that determines cohesive element parameters is also suggested on the basis of adhesive strength testing. The comparative FEM calculations are conducted where adhesive layer is modeled by 2D elements and cohesive element. It was proved that using of cohesive elements is more useful for an analysis of adhesively bonded structures; nevertheless it is less useful for an analysis of adhesive layer strength.
Keywords: adhesive layer, strength of adhesive joints, FEM calculation, cohesive element
This paper presents results of experimental studies that assess the effect of ceramic nanopowder on static peel strength of adhesive joints. Introduction to adhesive compositions of nanopowder SiO2 or Al2O3 in an amount of 2 – 8% resulted in an increase in peel strength of tested adhesives joints of 14 – 18%.
Keywords: adhesive joints, ceramic nanopowder, peel strength
Ciasnocha G., Łunarski J.: Comprehensive management of processes in the method of Lean Engineering
The paper presents an application of Lean Management to aerospace engineering, and describes process management methodology for aerospace design processes. It focuses on engineering processes improvement with the use of Lean Engineering process management technique.
Keywords: Lean, Lean Management, Lean Engineering, design processes, process management
Antosz K., Jaskuła M.: Application of value stream mapping for the production process improvement of the assembly products
The article presents the usage of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) for the production of assembly product. The work presents identification and elimination influence on all kinds of waste in the production processes. Furthermore, it identifies the characterized process and analyzes the current state map. This work proposes process improvement probabilities, and elaborates the future state map. The usage of VSM can improve productiveness and efficiency of the analyzed process. Obtained results and observations confirm that the concept of Lean Manufacturing improves processes mentioned above.
Keywords: identification of waste, Lean Manufacturing tools, Value Stream Mapping – VSM, assembly products
Dżemiłow E. Sz.: Increase of processing quality of the conic interfaced surfaces by the diamond honingThe article represents the research results of the diamond honing process of the conical holes that allows, on the basis of improvement of tool’s constructions, to provide the contact capacities alignment in interaction of its effective area with a part, and to improve the treatment quality.
Keywords: process of a diamond honing, conic holes, increasing of quality of processing, contact interaction of the tool with a detail
Wróbel J., Kulawik A., Bokota A.: The stress fields in the outer race of the needle bearing after the hardening of the surface layer
The article presents the numerical model of the hardening process for structural steel (C45). The implementation of this model is used to simulate the heat treatment process of the outer race of the needle bearing. The main components of this model are three blocks: the thermal, the phase transformations in the solid state, and the mechanical phenomena. These components of the numerical model are coupled. The material properties are dependent on the temperature and the phase compositions. The model includes the latent heat of phase transformations. There is used the differential equation describing the unsteady heat flow in axisymmetric element (cylindrical coordinates) to model of the thermal phenomena. To solve the heat flow equation, the finite element method in the implicit scheme of time integration is used.
In the phase transformations model the continuous heating (CHT) and continuous cooling (CCT) diagrams are used. The kinetics of the growth of the austenitic phase in the heating process and kinetics of the diffusional transformations in the cooling process are calculated by the empirical Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equations. The increase of the martensite by the Koistinen-Marburger equation is determined.
In the model of the mechanical phenomena the equilibrium equations in the rate forms are used, thus these equations are complemented by the adequate constitutive relations (dependence the material properties on the temperature and phase compositions). To determine of the plastic strains the right of nonisothermal plastic flow and Huber-Mises plasticity condition are used, and the isotropic nature of material hardening is assumed. The transformations strains are not included.
In the paper the results of calculations of hardening outer race of needle bearing are presented. The heating of the race is performed by burner flame, which is modeled by the superficial heat source.
Keywords: phase transformations, numerical model, heat treatment, stresses
Wójcicki T.: Video support of the assembly process
This article presents a methodology and an original video support system for the assembly process a of complex technical equipment. This presented method describes the application of an augmented reality technology that interacts with the system operator and the physical and logical components involved in the assembly process. The paper describes the advantages of this method and possible application areas, which include for instance: recognizing the state of the equipment, carrying out corrective actions, maintaining or improving skills associated with the assembly processes. The theoretical basis of augmented reality technology and its origins is presented. There is also described the hardware and software structure of the system composed of a server and a client parts intended to support the operator. The detailed algorithm designed to enrich the registered image with virtual objects in order to improve the decision-making process by the operator was also explained. Functions of an implemented feedback that allows to control the assembly process is described. Moreover, the paper presents a control system that enables the operator to use the video support for any assembly steps and continue work without the need to examine the technical documentation. The examples of applications of the developed solution in the assembling process and handling of devices such as a laser penetrometer and a control system for climate chambers produced at the Institute for Sustainable Technologies - National Research Institute in Radom are presented. The article describes benefits of the use of augmented reality technology in the assembly field and other functional capabilities of the system, such as: costs reduction, the manufacturing process improvement, and the acceleration of the training process for a wide range of the produced assortment.
Keywords: augmented reality, assembly, human-machine interaction, image analysis
Cienińska B., Kluz R.: The planning of assembling work-stations for disabled persons with limited fitness with risk assessment
This article presents issues of designing workstations for people with disabilities. An algorithm is also presented that helps to create a safe work environment and to evaluate the possibility of risk in such workstations. There is a given example of special requirements that has to be accomplished. Furthermore, there are mentioned various motor skills and perceptional limitations that are the result of health and dysfunctionality problems.
Keywords: workstations planning, workstations for people with limited motor skills, safety
Pająk E., Cieślak R.: An application of time study methods in the assembly process of a cnc milling machine spindle
This paper contains overview of a two chosen methods of time study: a chronometric analysis and a working-day activity study. It also presents the method created by the authors and called ChronFoto_RC. Literature sources and the authors’ research provided the basis for the comparison of the aforementioned methods used in the assembly process of a CNC milling machine spindle. The summary evaluates that these methods are created and fit for the industrial use.
Keywords: time study methods
Szkunko L.S., Smołow Ju.A., Wartanow M.W., Sawin N.O.: Automatizated test stand for the control leak proofness of product
This article describes a designed work stand model with its core devices, and presents possibilities of usage in the process of evaluating leak-proofness of the cow unit.
Keywords: leak, automation, stand
Zbrowski A., Kozioł S.: Model of a device for testing id cards’ endurance to one-sided bending
The article presents a method and a model of a device for testing endurance of ID cards to one-sided bending made with the PN-ISO/IEC 10373-1:2008 no 5.8 norm.
Both the method and the device are intended for testing the negative impact of repeated one-sided bending of an electronically tagged (i.e. with an RFID inlet) or graphically or structurally protected ID card onto its physical and functional properties. The test results are an increased weariness of a multilayered ID card, particularly in the area where the RFID chip is located or any other structural element of key playing a functional role in a ID card.
The test is executed with the use of a special device for simultaneous tests of 10 cards in two positions. The cards are bent either along their long or short side. The cards are placed between the two jaws, one of which rotates and the other one that does not. The rotation of the jaw causes the deformation of the sample. In order to enable the card testing with varied stiffness, the jaw span can be properly adjusted and the oscillatory motion of the moveable jaw can be regulated.
The plan of the test is set up for 1000 cycles of one-sided bending (250 in each possible position) verifies the efficiency of the RFID inlet and other functional properties of the card. The aforementioned test method can also be used in tests of different products, which are subject to one-sided bending during their operation, i.e.: glued joints, multilayered products, or laminates.Only samples with good elastic properties can be tested. The application of the control panel enables test monitoring and a facility communication between the device and the user.
Keywords: RFID, document durability, one-sided bending, endurance test, ID cards
Zbrowski A., Matecki K.: Assemblies of structural elements manufactured with the use of rapid prototyping technology
The authors show how complex and complicated structural elements are that play the role of lids and casings of industrial devices and laboratory apparatus can be manufactured in a way that enhances their aesthetic and operational features, and improves practical application opportunities. The article presents the manufacturing process for the aforementioned elements, which are characterised by a relatively big size, in which Rapid Prototyping technique is applied. The authors also consider the possibility to divide the element whose dimensions exceed the manufacturing opportunities offered by the RP method into smaller components, and present the production process for such elements starting with the design stage, through the division stage, to the final manufacturing stage, in which the gluing technique is used for all the components to be joined together into one element. The article also discusses the importance of the proper design of the virtual element model and presents additional requirements for its proper physical preparation concerning necessary assembly parts. The authors stress the role of additional structural elements that are essential for the proper execution of the gluing process. The results of the design work are shown in form of computer spatial models with appropriate functional, ergonomic and visual features. The models were printed out with the use of the 3D printing method and the elements were produced with the use of the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) method consisted in the layered deposition of plastic. The problems are explained concerning the finishing of the surface of the manufactured element where painting techniques are applied. Based on the example of the casing of the penetrometer produced at the Institute for Sustainable Technologies (ITeE-PIB), the authors show the alternative to the currently used manufacturing methods.
Keywords: Rapid Prototyping, gluing, industrial design, 3D design, manufacturing techniques
Kłonica M., Kuczmaszewski J.: Effectiveness study of bonding of pa6 polyamide and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)
The paper presents selected results of research on the effectiveness of PA6 polyamide and PTFE bonding. PA6 polyamide is widely used in mechanical engineering, therefore it is important to develop adhesive technology that ensures optimum utilization of such a connection. PTFE due to its physicochemical properties is a difficult to join material. The paper focuses on comparative studies of shear strength of adhesive bonds involving these materials with a variety of structural adhesives. The paper ends with conclusions.
Keywords: PA6 polyamide, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), surface free energy, adhesive bonding, roughness
Domińczuk J.: Numeric model allowing to estimate the influence of the length of overlap on the strength of adhesive joints
The article presents the results of conducted qualitative estimated analysis of usefulness of artificial intelligence for processing the experimental data for estimating strength of adhesive joints over the overlap length. The efficiency of neural network was compared with the efficiency of the typical statistic analysis, i.e. the linear and polynomial regression. Results of modelling were compared with results of analysis of theoretical dependences. Such an approach allows verifying the correctness of latent algorithm designed on basis of the results of research conducted according to static, multifactoral experiment. The list of input variable consisted of: adhesive joint overlap length, thickness of bonded materials, thickness of adhesive joint and the geometrical development of surface layer. The variable output was a breaking stress of overlap adhesive joint. The other factors that may influence the strength of joint remain constant during the research.
The results of research on model introduced in the paper suggest (for a defined node) the non-linear influence of the adhesive joint overlap length on its strength. After analysis presented in the article it is possible to define the border value of overlap length using the multidimensional analysis. Therefore it is possible to optimize adhesive joints regarding both constructional and technological parameters that influence the joints quality. We should also notice that the strength of adhesive joint is a function of complicated relations between geometrical parameters describing the joint. The obtained results of overlap length border value using numeric model are not exposed to error according to the Volkersen theory, which omits deformations from bending bonded elements that are the result of the normal stress in the adhesive joint.
Keywords: artificial intelligence, adhesion, forecasting
Mucha J., Witkowski W.: Experimental analysis of the effectiveness of solutions for joining by redrawing sheet
In this paper an analysis of the strength of connections for lap steel S350GD with a thickness of 1 mm is discussed.
There are presented shear tests for single lap joints, and the double arrangement for two direction of the loading force.The shear test specified by maximum shear strength for joints is made in different systems, including redrawing technology.An example of a new connecting technology ClinchRivet for steel S350GD is presented.
The highest stress values for all joints are obtained with a ClinchRivet sample. These connections have demonstrated a high load peak. Changing the load direction at an angle of 45° in the joint causes a significant increase of a load peak displacement.The biggest difference in the transmission of the maximum load in combination of the lap load is a change in direction by 90° in double connections of ClinchRivet and SPR.
The lowest initial stiffness of the sheet metal S350GD joints have a connection with a self-drilling screw.
Keywords: mechanical joining, shear strength, clinching, Self Piercing Riveting, ClinchRiveting
Kulawik A., Wróbel J.: Modeling of phase transformations in the laser welding joint
Production of steel assembly joints, whether separable or inseparable, is often associated with the use of welding process. Materials that were considered difficult or impossible to weld in the past are joined more and more often nowadays. This paper analyzes performance of the laser welding model of steel element (AISI 4140). The coupled models of thermal phenomena and phase transformations in solid state are described. The thermal phenomena of the welding process are modeled on the basis of the heat transfer equation solution with a convective term. The melting and solidification processes are included in modification of the effective heat. The proposed model of thermal phenomena is calculated by a development of our own software (for 3D tasks). The finite element method in Petrov-Galerkin formulations is used to find a solution of the heat conductivity equation. This method gives the stability of the algorithm due to the moving heat source. The laser heating was modeled by a combination of a heat source model, which is the sum of the surface, and volumetric sources. The thermophysical properties are dependent on the phase composition and temperature. The phase transformations in the solid state are modelled by the use of the Avrami equation and the analysis of CHT and CCT diagrams.
Both the comparative analysis of TTT diagrams obtained from the thermodynamic model (Kirkaldy model) and the experimental diagrams are performed. The paper presents the results of the numerical simulation temperature fields for the welded steel element. The kinetics of phase transformation in the solid state, changes of temperature and strains in two control nodes are also presented.
The obtained results show that the changes of the temperature and connected with them changes of structural and thermal strains in the simulation of the laser welding are rapid. Obtained structural changes in the simulation of welding are strongly dependent on the applied CCT diagrams.
Keywords: thermal loads, moving heat source, numerical simulation
Kobiałka J., Urbaś Z.: Technological processes of making connections of small elements in chosen examples of positions for the automatic assembly
The article provides a selective review of recent technological processes as well as description of technological aspects of automated machines design used for joining two or of three small plastic or metal elements constructed and built in IMBiGS. The authors presents modern, thorough, and advanced solutions for this assembly process that may look simple for some of us, but it is not. Above-mentioned technological solutions may have practical application for designing automatic assembly positions.
Keywords: automated machines design, assembly process, joining elements
Komorek A., Przybyłek P.: Effect of reinforcing layers order arrangement on properties of the hybrid laminate
Aerospace structures work in various environmental conditions that affect the properties of polymer composites from which are often made the items of airplanes and helicopters.
The paper presents the layers arrangement order effect of the composite layer on the properties of the composite exposed to the seawater environment. In addition, samples were exposed to an impact load, often occurring during aircraft operation.
As a result of tests it was noticed that impact loads have a significant effect on the properties of the composite, regardless of its internal structure. In addition to the mechanical damage causing a reduction of mechanical material properties, the resulting damage to the matrix facilitate penetration of environmental factors (water) to the interior of the composite structure, which enhances the material destruction process. The study of composites with hybrid reinforcement make possible to observe significant differences in properties of these materials subjected to impact loads and influence of environmental factors.
Keywords: layered composite, impact load, seawater environment, bending strength
Matuszewski M., Styp-Rekowski M.: Constructional analysis of connections in aspect of fulfilled tasks
This paper presents a synthetic review how connection tasks should function in machines and devices of different structure, e.g. the other kind of technological machines, building of truss constructions and the like. Identification of tasks performed by connections allows characterizing their features. The aim of presented work indicates that a different destination of individual connections generates the need of assurance for characteristic constructional features.
Information in this range confirmed the assumption mentioned above. An exact relationship between correctness of assembly and quality of technical object also confirms this. A gathered knowledge can be useful in design engineering of technical objects in many trades, and in a range of assembly tooling design.
Keywords: connection, assembly, functional feature, constructional feature, technological machine, truss construction
This paper presents the results of experimental studies aimed at determining the fatigue life of mechanical and adhesive-mechanical (hybrid) joints. The joints were prepared with the use of rivets and screws. The results shown that the fatigue life of single lap joints depends on the pressure forces generated during the joint assembling. Furthermore, the use of screws (including Hi-Lok fasteners) for jointing elements increases the fatigue life of the joints. It confirms that the replacement of mechanical joints by adhesive-mechanical joints may have a positive impact on fatigue life of the joints, by reducing pressure forces during the joints assembling.
Keywords: riveted and screwed joints, hybrid joints, fatigue life of joints
Oborskyi I., Demkivskyi A.: Use of computer technology with the creation of the high-strength connections of components with the interference (English)
The article presents a structure of the assembling connections methods with an interference used, and the algorithm solution with the use of a computer technology with a selection of their rational construction-engineering parameters that include operating conditions, physico-mechanical properties of the utilized materials, microrelief, and intermediate layers in the contact zone.
Keywords: the assembling, connection with the interference, the thermal methods of the assembling
Кристаль M., Плешаков A., Полякова M.: Pneumatic-electron measurement device for a selective assembly of an interference joint (Russian)
This article presents a device that is used in automated selection of carbide inserts mounted in the bit of mining drills.
Keywords: pneumatic-electron measurement device, selective assembly, interference joint
Rudawska A., Bronisz K.:The influence of mechanical treatment parameters in the adhesive joint strength
The article presents selected issues that affect the surface treatment using machining on adhesive joints strength of steel sheets. Objects of studies were single-lap adhesive joints samples made of C45 steel with a thickness of 1.5 mm with shear loaded. There were used several variants of surface treatment such as grinding, lapping, and super-finishing. Furthermore, several variants of technological parameters (for example, the depth of cutting, the main operation time) and the type of tools were used. Certain conditions of making joints and a two-part epoxy adhesive Loctite 9466 were used. Strength tests were carried out according to EN DIN 1465, which allowed determining the shear strength of adhesive joints. A final test results shown the difference in values of shear strength obtained after the application of different variants of machining-finishing.
Keywords: adhesive joints, surface treatment, adhesive joints strength
Epoxy adhesives are universal and are commonly used in many branches of industry, especially as structural adhesives, which are able to carry major mechanical loads. Unfortunately, the weakness of epoxy adhesives is a relatively small strength in a temperature range between 80 – 100°C. The article analyses an influence of nanofillers like nanosilica on selected properties of epoxy adhesives. The attention is especially paid to thermal properties of tested materials and the strength of lap shear joints prepared on the basis of epoxy resins, which were modified using nanosilica. The tests results and conclusions are presented in the article.
Keywords: epoxy resin, nanosilica, strength tests, modification
Zaleski K., Matuszak J.: Comparative studies on edge machining by wire brushing for products made from 7075 aluminum alloy and c45 steel
The edge state of assembled products has a vital importance in the assembly manufacturing process. After face milling process, burrs can appear on the edges of milled parts. Incorrectly prepared edges may hinder or even prevent the assembly operations, because the damage to the surface of associated components may cause cuts and scratches to assembly parts, or exert a negative impact on the assembled units or machines maintenance. Given the effort connected with assembly operations, it is justified that assembly processes sholud be comprehensively automated.
This paper presents the results of a studies undertaken to examine edge states after the deburring process in brushing. Samples of 7075 aluminum alloy and C45 steel were used in the experimental studies. The samples were milled on the Fv-580A vertical machining center. After the milling process, burrs appeared on the machined edges. In order to remove the burrs, the brushing process was applied with three different brushes. The measurement results for edge states and surface roughness after deburring are also presented in this work. Wire brushing can be an effective automated deburring method while applied on machining centers.
Keywords: wire brushing, burrs, edge states
The article presents a method and a device for testing document endurance to spherical deformation which takes place when the ID card is carried in a back pocket of trousers. The method, which complies with the ICAO’s requirements concerning the implementation of security measures for ID documents and data stored in them, consists a repeated spherical bending of a document or its structural element. This is achieved by placing a document on a flexible base, and pressing a convex metal stamp against it. In each cycle a constant force with which the stamp is pressed against the document is maintained. The authors present structural solutions that are crucial from the point of view of proper execution of the test procedure, ergonomics use and basic executive systems. The device is equipped with a programmable PLC controller enabling all the test parameters to be set (force, load time, number of cycles) in a way that significantly exceeds the requirements of the current norms. The parameters are set with the use of a multifunctional control panel that transmits full information concerning the test and the occurrence of any faults. The parameter range of the device allows for its application in R&D tasks concerning a prototype of new solutions in the area of multilayered electronically tagged document development. The practical application of the device used by authorized institutions may increase i.e. the level of data and object security.
Keywords: document, endurance, tests, deformation
Nieoczym A.: Chosen aspects of manipulators coordination
Manipulation area of working cell encompasses technological area that is characterized by assembling operation processes. Such processes consist the following parts: a critical area that is a common part for two cooperating robots and a non-critical area. The spaces occupied by individual robots are limited by the length of an arm, its rotation and lift angle as well as by rotation angle of a robot base in relation to vertical axis. During an initial stage of designing it is necessary to identify the requirements that should be fulfilled by the robot. Depending on its purpose, the industrial robot can cover an area of one to seven degrees of acurator freedom. Rejection of the optimization principles concerning degrees of freedom results in an increase of overall dimensions, weight, and costs of the robot as well as it causes reduction of assembling accuracy and reliability of the robot. Such misfits lead finally to a violent decrease of technical and economic efficiency of the robot utilization.
Keywords: technological area, critical area, assembling sequences, degree of freedom
The article presents foundations of computer-aided supply transfer subsystems in automated manufacturing systems. There are outlined the basic components of the manufacturing process such as product, technology, manufacturing system, and the importance of designing process. The architecture of the aiding system based upon the manufacturing process components is characterized. The system is based on the integrated data model.
Keywords: automated manufacturing systems, manufacturing, supply transfer subsystem, computer aided design, product, technology
Ягьяев Э., Шрон Л.: Diagnosis of the grinding process on the dynamics of change of the output variables (Russian)
The article describes a system for diagnosing an external grinding on the basis of analyzing the dynamics of the output variables change and the state parameters of the technological system. Therefore, the features of the interruption time of interval parameters of the technological system state should be concidered.
Keywords: process, grinding, steering
Tuleja P., Šidlovská L., Hajduk M.: Effector mechanism with unilateral gripping (English)
In technical practice it is impossible to use conventional methods of gripping, i.e. to clamp the manipulated object while handling it. The use of the end gripping effector mechanism with unilateral gripping offers a certain solution. This article gives an overview of unilateral gripping possibilities in connection with applied physical principle of used gripping element. The article also provides a methodological framework for selecting an appropriate option for gripping a particular application.
Keywords: unilateral gripping, gripping element, gripping end effector
The increasing requirements of the quality of produced objects are forcing manufacturers to use fast and accurate methods for control and measuring. This paper presents operation of a visual quality control module for automated testing of plastic decorative components. The work includes a description of the control module, and the control algorithm that separate flawed parts from the correct ones.
Keywords: visual control, vision system, machine vision, control algorithm, algorithm for detecting flawed parts
Ciasnocha G., Łunarski J.: Identification of construction design primary processes based on Lean Management
The paper presents the application issues of Lean Management to an aerospace engineering. The paper shows a management methodology process for an aerospace design processes. It focuses on the improvement of engineering processes with the use of Lean Engineering management process technique.
Keywords: Lean, Lean Management, Lean Engineering, design processes, process management
Żurek J., Wiśniewski M.: The methodology and research conditions of FANUC M-16iB industrial robot positioning accuracy and repeatability
The article includes a detailed methodology of the Fanuc M-16iB industrial robot functional characteristic measurement - its positioning accuracy and repeatability. There is described and defined position of an interface motion during reaching the target by a robot. The space where measurements should be taken is defined, and this article defines the mathematical relationship of accuracy and repeatability of industrial robot positioning. Moreover, the methods of industrial robot positioning accuracy and repeatability of testing are specified.
Keywords: industrial robot testing, industrial robot accuracy and repeatability, methodology of testing and functional characteristics of industrial robot.
Oroń G., Galiński K., Bandyra Z.: Mechanism for measuring and cutting the flexible tape in the mask assembly device
The article describes the principle of construction and a transport process of elastic tape in the mask assembly device. The complete assembly device has been designed and manufactured in IMBiGS. Due to the difficulties of transport operations and changes of a tape, some parts of the device were built from the beginning. The final shape of a merger of elements has been chosen after several attempts.
Keywords: dust mask, optical sensor, mounting device
Fabiszewski M.: Modernization of automated assembly stands for new piston line
This article describes an implemented and performed modernization work on existing assembly stands LNB-65 and LNB-66. Those assembly stands have been adjusted to mounting joints, cut-out switch springs, asterisks, and caps in a new piston brake master cylinder lines of Opel Gamma and Smart. The article describes a performance of a designed new set for mounting pistons, passing and pressing joints, checking the presence of springs in a cut-out switch, passing and pressing the asterisks and cups.
Keywords: Opel Gamma and Smart pistons, pressing head, cut-out switch spring, asterisk, cup
Gabdullina A. Z.: Ensuring the quality assemblage of bevel gear by reducing the radial run-out of shaft bearings on supports (Russian)
The article deals with the technological issues of ensuring the precision of bevel gear by reducing the radial run-out of shaft.
Keywords: radial run-out, the axis of rotation, alignment of step, dimensional chain
Fabiszewski M., Rychlik K.: Tapping unit for industry designed in IMBiGS, Warsaw
This article describes a tapping unit build and implemented in the automotive industry. The tapping unit has been used with a special task machine tool LKB-242. This special task machine tool uses a plastic method to form screw threads with pitch of 1 and 1,5 mm. There have been used a sliding unit JBM-250x200 and a headstock JUT SK-40 to built this tapping unit. Screw threads of various pitches are formed with the use of different templates that are mounted on a train module of a tapping unit. The special task machine tool LKB-242 with a tapping unit allow to form screw threads of two types M6x1 and M12x1,5 mm with the use of FANAR and EMUGE machine taps. They are mounted on a special head that fits the JUT SK-40 headstock.
Keywords: tapping unit, task machine tool, headstock unit, screw threads template
Nieoczym A.: Flow of charge design in the AGV system
The article describes basic problems of an AVG system design and an applied mathematical apparatus. On the account of the complexity of the AGV systems, there is always an assumption of at least two decision-making problems being solved. The additional analytical elements associated with the design, steering, and guidance in AGV are: a drawing and a simulation of the methodology of the system design. The initial analysis of the AGV was made on the assembly line, and the article presents a final result of a simulation of one vehicle moving on a closed-loop. There are illustrated following points: a vehicle activity, an amount of positions reporting the demand for the service, working hours, and a standstill.
Keywords: AGV, transport network, harmonizing vehicle functions, depositing vehicles, flow of charge
The paper presents the issues of a surface cleaning selection process criteria on the basis of the available literature. The article discusses purifying methods of the overall treatment processes. There have been attempts to organize simplified, traditional and new methods of this action. The article shows a general characteristics of individual quoted classification groups that permit initial choices, which often have to be supplemented with detailed conditions and technological parameters of the process. Various processes require a certain purity of the surface prior to the implementation of this process resulting in a variety of treatment processes.
Keywords: technological and operational pollution, surface cleaning methods, classification
Ciecińska B., Perłowski R.: The surface free energy of selected aircraft materials after laser treatment
There are special requirements for joined surfaces in a gluing process. A surface prepared for an adhesive bonding should have no pollutants, be a wetting surface, have an ability to create an intermolecular bonds, have established exploitation stability and rate, repeatability of obtained properties, and contain adhesive primers or activators (if required). It is possible to improve an adhesion by a removal of unwanted layers from glued surfaces, or to make a new and active surface by adding a protective layer, changing the surface activity by machining, chemical treatment (i.e. etching), reactive gas treatment (e.g. ozonation, fluoridation), UV or X-ray radiation, laser or electron beam treatment, the affection of low temperature plasma, corona discharges, and flame shaping. The paper presents the results of experiments conducted on the two kinds of materials to assess an effect of laser treatment on surface free energy before an adhesive bonding. The experiment was conducted with a various beam parameters. The measurements of a wetting angle were conducted directly after a treatment and then after one hour to assess if the machining result is stable.
Keywords: surface free energy (SFE), laser treatment, adhesion
Rudawska A., Białasz J.: The influence of selected technological factors on the bonded joints strength of 2024 aluminum alloy sheets
The article describes issues related to influence determination of pressure in the process of hardening on the bonded joints strength of 2024 aluminum alloy sheets. These joints were made with two types of epoxy adhesives: Loctite 9484 and Loctite 9466. These adhesives contain an epoxy resin and a different type of hardeners and have a different characteristics. An application of four kinds of pressures allows to obtain different values for the thickness of the adhesive layer. It is noted that force has a significant effect on the thickness of adhesive layer in both cases of applied adhesives. In the case of the Loctite 9484 adhesive a received relationship is similar to a linear one; thus, when force increase, the thickness of an adhesive layer decreases. For the Loctite 9644 adhesive there is also observed a reduction of a hardened adhesive layer thickness, but the relationship is not linear. The use of 0,048 MPa pressure allows to receive the greatest strength for both applied adhesives - in both variants the thickness of an adhesive layer is approximately 0.20 mm. In the case of a merger of aluminium it is useful to apply the Loctite 9466 adhesive, because it allows to get more than twice the strength (of 21.33 MPa) in a relation to the bonded joints strength with the use of Loctite 9484 adhesive (7.71 MPa).
Keywords: adhesives, bonded joints, bonded joints strength, bonding
Zielecki W., Kubit A.: Static strength test of adhesive joints
This paper presents a construction and a principle of a strength operation of adhesive joints measurement system that is subjected to peel testing. This system was used to measure a failure force of adhesive joint specimens. The article presents a strength test results of different glue thickness variants in the front part of an adhesive layer. All specimens are composed of steel adherents (steel type: S235JT) and bonded by an epoxy resin. An investigation confirms a strength increase of a peel test for variants with larger thickness.
Keywords: static strength test, adhesive joints, peel testing
Rośkowicz M., Rożek M.: Short-term strength of adhesive bonds with the physical modification of a layer
The paper deals with analysis of a physical modification effect on adhesives and adhesive bonds on adhesive joints strength properties. Results of our studies show that a physical modification of adhesive bonds improves mechanical properties of adhesive joints. This includes an adhesive strength and a short-term strength, which is a result of adding glass fibers (as unidirectional fibers, fabrics and chopped fibers) and particulate matters (as micro and nano-particles). Numerical calculations are made for a two different models of the modified adhesive layer – an isotropic and orthotropic model. It seems that the orthotropic model is more appropriate to the short-term strength analysis of the adhesive bonds reinforced with glass fabrics. In such modeling of an adhesive layer, a distribution of stress is more probable.
Keywords: adhesive joints, physical modification of adhesive bonds, short-term strength of adhesive joints
Rudawska A., Trebik P.: Comparative analysis of bonded a